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There are a number of times when debriefing the participants of a study is not possible.To give an example, Piliavin et al., which was a field experiment.Perhaps the most important ethical principle is that participants should be protected from harm, psychological or otherwise.Psychological harm can be difficult to operationalise because it can depend upon the person and it can be difficult to detect, both the participants and the researchers may not know that participants have been harmed psychologically.Laura Kastner shows parents how to stay calm and cool-headed while dealing with serious youth issues today.
Some studies require that the participants are deceived in some way.Milgram’s infamous study conducted to the highest ethical peaks would not have provided such an insight of human obedience because it would have become completely ecologically invalid — in real life we cannot simply withdraw from the research.Furthermore, demand characteristics would have undoubtably had a confounding effect upon the results.However, that being said, researchers can do their upmost to prevent any undue stress for their participants.
Giving participants the right to withdraw does not just informing them that they can leave the study , but also informing them that they have the right to withdraw their results from the study at any time.
Take for example a study in which a person has to take an IQ test, that returns the result that they have below average intelligence.