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13-Jun-2020 21:56

However, even if all the scientific and technical problems in half a century can be solved, there are big doubts about the economic feasibility and safety of obtaining energy in fusion reactors. But in the real material there are a lot of processes being performed, and it is very difficult to take into account all of them. Very weak reactions can occur under less extreme conditions. That is, by the amount of released heat there is still a large supply of unused deuterium. The amount of energy that we spend on absorption in relation to all the heat released is obtained: (Qizb.

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At the 9th Beijing Cold Synthesis Conference in 2003, I asked Martin Fleishman a question; what, in his opinion, is more important for the development of this direction: experiments or theory? * * * From the very beginning of our research, we set as the main task the development of the theory of nuclear reactions at low energies, combining this with experiments. At that time, we were making a high-pressure hydrogen complex with hydrogen pressures up to 400 atmospheres. Table of binary hydrides in the periodic system from the book “Metal hydrides”. Employees of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, Yu. We thought that if we do not get a nuclear fusion reaction at low pressures, then we can achieve a positive effect at high pressure. We had several systems for measuring nuclear radiation: two detectors were used for gamma radiation, there were track neutron detectors (marked in figure 2). It was a thin mica-muskavit with a diameter of several centimeters with thin layers of uranium-235 and neptunium-237 applied to it. Without adding anything, without touching anything, the system itself enters the self-oscillatory mode when it starts to generate heat.

Math turned out to be not much easier, so now, she advocates for cold fusion, the easiest thing in the world. Along with the fascinating increase of alpha activity, an increase in the amount of thorium (EDS) and a decrease in uranium is observed by chemical analysis (MIT) and by observing the intensity of peaks in the spectra of characteristic radiation of uranium (x-ray data) decrease. According to the Washington Post newspaper, hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent, so that using the most sophisticated and at the same time very cumbersome equipment to create conditions that would resemble those that exist on the Sun in a giant nuclear synthesizer. The low level of scientific reasoning used by opponents of cold fusion in this correspondence, the obvious commitment of their assessments, combined with the lack of knowledge of the works mentioned in the American report, are worthy of analysis in a separate publication. They take time to consider these objections, conduct a new examination and again send us another refusal. 28 shows an abrupt change in the temperature of the sample when the temperature from 590 ° C soars above 1120 ° C when deuterium is injected. Here you can see the moment of the beginning of the nuclear process and it is clear that at this time the neutron yield is much larger than at the moment of the start of the overlap. I believe that the temperature curve, which is indicated in Fig.

She has made several short documentary films and speaks on the topic. A., Natural evidence of nuclear reactions of synthesis and transmutation of chemical elements in the Earth’s core. The correlation between X-ray emission data and the thermal ionization mass-spectrometry. In the meantime, the result is the following: to carry out such experiments, the energy is spent much more than it is created. Their position is unshakable: cold fusion is pseudoscience, the report of the US Defense Department is disinformation, the purpose of which is to direct our weakened intellectual forces along the wrong path. He cannot come from Yekaterinburg, but he said hello to all the participants and signs our welcoming address to colleagues from the USA. But since last year a breakthrough began in the world in issuing various patents on cold fusion, the United States began to officially register patents on cold fusion reactors, I hope that we will “finish off” the European Patent Office and get a patent. The neutron count maximum corresponds to the moment of the second maximum in temperature in Fig. 30 in green, is the result of two processes of heat.

Similar experiments were replicated in the laboratory of the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA [34]. Setup for measuring of energy balance at interaction of metals and hydrogen isotopes gas at high temperatures and pressures Proc. We well supplemented each other at the initial stage of work. The April “denials” of the American Physical Society and the Massachusetts University of Technology were published a month after the March 23 press conference, while the reaction from Fleischmann and Pons was launched only on the 72nd day. We used a power source that worked in the mode of maintaining a constant load current, and at the same time the temperature of this heater from an additional heat source increased.

The release of excess heat and its correlation with the release of tritium and helium was confirmed. of the 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCF-13), Moscow, p. Yan Kucherov knew better than others nuclear physics and was an arbitrator in these questions. For some reason, at first, nobody paid attention to this circumstance. Accordingly, the resistance of the heater increases, which leads to a change in the power of the heater, according to my calculations, by 0.64 watts in 43 seconds. Therefore, I had an idea to use this effect to measure the heat from the sample during its saturation with deuterium and degassing.cold fusion is now regarded as one of the most famous cases of what the chemist Irwin Langmuir called pathological science: science of things that aren`t so.” The main reason for the persistence in ignoring the new scientific direction was the impossibility of a theoretical explanation of the experimental data. In the book: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCF 13), Moscow, pp. Later Karabut could decipher possible decay chains in gamma spectra. When uranium-235 is divided in atomic reactors by 1 kg, almost 2 million times energy is released than by burning oil or coal. Initiation of Cold Energy Fusion // Theses of the international conference, “Possibilities of Ecological Clean Energy Production and Energy Conservation”, Minsk, Belarus, May 25–27, 1993, p. In this mode, the titanium deuteride begins to absorb and release deuterium with a frequency of 0.33 Hz. 33 shows the preparatory steps for starting the system by turning the external heater on and off.